CatRescue 901 is a small team of volunteers who are dedicated to helping cats in need in pounds and the community. We do not receive any funding and are only able to continue our vital rescue work thanks to the generosity of the community. Donations over $2 are tax deductible. Thank you for your support.
THE GREAT FIV DEBATE
One thing is certain when it comes to FIV – different vets have very different opinions about it. Some vets still believe these cats should be killed. Others believe they should be housed as only cats and some vets are not very concerned about it at all. Some vets believe that vaccinating against FIV is a good idea and some can’t see much point as the vaccination is not necessarily reliable.
Until quite recently, the larger organisations were killing FIV+ cats. It’s great that this terrible practise is ceasing. We know that RSPCA and AWL are both rehoming their FIV+ cats.
FIV+ AND FIV- CATS COHABITATING
The first thing that must be considered is that all cats must be friendly/cat friendly and will not fight when introduced carefully/slowly to another cat.
The second thing to know is that pretty much everyone agrees FIV is transmitted via deep biting during mating or fighting.
There is little real evidence to prove that it’s ok or not ok to mix positive and negative cats. However, in the below link shows a shelter did not have one transmission.
Rescuers have been putting positive and negative cats together for years. CatRescue 901 has experience of Jenny’s Gisette (FIV-) and foster cat Lazarus (FIV+). They lived together; just about literally joined at the hip for a year. Why sleep in two beds when you can squeeze into one bed together? They used to play fight a lot too. After that year Gisette developed an issue with her eye. The opthalmologist wanted to FIV/FelV test her and she was still negative after a year living very closely with Lazarus.
If your cat is FIV+, it is important to find a vet who is knowledgeable and understanding in this area.
READ ON TO LEARN MORE ABOUT FIV…
FIV (Feline Immunodeficiency Virus) is caused by a retrovirus that breaks down the immune system’s ability to fight off disease. It cannot be spread to people or other species; so it can only be passed from cat to cat in the specific circumstances.
One thing FIV is NOT is ‘Feline AIDS’. As with HIV, only the final, terminal stage of FIV is considered equivalent to the onset of AIDS in humans – and it’s a stage most FIV-positive cats never reach(1). When properly managed, FIV is by no means a death sentence. As with HIV in humans, an FIV+ cat may remain perfectly healthy for many years – and many cats are asymptomatic their entire lives, eventually passing away from unrelated ailments or old age. Dr Diane D. Addie, Lecturer in Veterinary Virology at the University of Glasgow, says, “At least three studies in FIV+ cats have shown a life span equal to uninfected cats”(2).
(Click the links for more information)
SYMPTOMS OF FIV
Bearing in mind that many FIV+ cats will never exhibit any related symptoms, even if a first infection occurs, it can be many years before the cat becomes chronically ill, (if it does at all) provided each infection is promptly treated and the cat is well cared for. It is also best to minimise exposure to illness by keeping FIV+ cats indoors and separate from sick cats. Generally, a cat will live it’s normal life span without presenting any symptoms.
It is important to note, that feeding a diet that cleans their teeth is imperative. This is easily done by feeding Prescription Dental biscuits, chunks of meat to chew, whole chicken hearts, and chicken neck a few times a week. Healthy FIV cats do extremely well on a raw diet (human grade only and frozen for 3 days before feeding). If the cat becomes ill their diet may need to be reassessed. Whilst many FIV+ cats may have good teeth their whole lives, it’s not uncommon for FIV+ cats to have some tooth extractions.
The clinical signs of FIV are many and varied, and can include chronic and recurrent infections of the skin, mouth, urinary tract and upper respiratory tract, progressive weight loss and poor coat, seizures, kidney failure, certain types of cancer, neurological disease, or none of the above. FIV+ cats are more vulnerable to tooth decay and stomatitis.
HOW DO I KNOW IF MY CAT IS FIV POSITIVE?
Diagnosis of FIV can be made by your vet by way of a in-house snap test or a more reliable blood test. However, you may receive a false result in certain cases and follow up testing may be required later. For example, when a kitten is born to an FIV+ mother you can receive a “false positive” result where the test may show the kitten is FIV+ when they may not be. If a kitten tests positive, you may test again once they are over 6 months old for an accurate result. Also, if a cat has been infected with FIV in the last 6 months, a test may show a “false negative”. It is also extremely important to be aware of the fact that, if a cat has previously been vaccinated against FIV they will test positive, even though they do not have FIV. There is an additional test now available that will determine the difference between a cat who has been vaccinated against FIV, and a cat is genuinely FIV+.
FIV in kittens: Cornell University: “Infected mother cats transfer FIV antibodies to nursing kittens, so kittens born to infected mothers may receive positive test results for several months after birth. However, few of these kittens actually are or will become infected.”
HOW TO PREVENT FIV
With FIV transmission occurring primarily via deep bite wounds, there are two simple ways to reduce the chance of infection in your healthy cat:
- Make sure your cat is desexed; ideally at a young age to minimise the risk of fighting with other cats particularly free roaming, undesexed, male cats who are the main carriers of FIV; and
- Give your cat an enriching, ‘indoors-only’ life.(3)
CAN I VACCINATE MY CAT AGAINST FIV?
There is some controversy regarding the effectiveness of the FIV vaccination, and more independent studies are needed. Basically, the main problem lies with the fact that, like most viruses, FIV constantly mutates. For this vaccine to be more effective, it needs to be continually re-developed for all new strains. Given that the FIV vaccination interferes with test results, it is important to discuss the advantages and disadvantages with your vet before deciding to have your cat vaccinated against FIV.
PREVENTION OF THE SPREAD OF FIV
It is very uncommon for a FIV+ cat to transmit the virus to other feline members of the household. Although the virus is present in saliva, it is extremely fragile and quickly dies after leaving its host; so unlike the highly contagious FelV, it is not transmitted by mutual grooming or the normal sharing of food bowls or litter boxes, or by a playful nip (where no blood is drawn). This is good news too for shelters that hold FIV+ cats, because the virus does not survive in the environment outside the cat’s body for more than a few seconds and is readily destroyed by most disinfectants(4). Shelters can be considered safe spaces for FIV-negative cats to share with their friendly FIV+ buddies with correct management.
While kittens can contract FIV either in utero or via their infected mother’s milk, it is rare. And as mentioned previously, the test results are not accurate until the kittens are more than six months old. The primary way FIV is transmitted is through fighting or mating that result in deep bite wounds. FIV can be transmitted via blood-to-blood or saliva-to-blood, but cannot be transmitted via saliva-to-saliva.
CARING FOR YOUR FIV POSITIVE CAT
As part of a good care regime for an FIV+ cat:
- Vet checks twice a year. The vet should check their eyes, teeth and gums, skin and lymph nodes, and weight
- A nutritionally complete and balanced diet is essential
- Ongoing diet supplementation with L-Lysine is also widely recommended for immune system support; it can be sprinkled onto food
- At any sign of illness, take your cat to the vet straight away, as early treatment can prevent many problems. Antibiotics can control infections, and FIV+ cats who reach a chronic stage may rely on antibiotics more frequently.
- It is important to find a vet who is knowledgeable and understanding in this area.
To ensure your FIV+ cat leads a happy and healthy life for as long as possible:
- Keep your cat indoors only
- Provide premium quality food, preferably raw, and include L-lysine daily. Whilst many still recommend no raw, rescuers and others have been feeding FIV+ cats raw for years with excellent results. Unless there is a specific reason not to, we always feed raw.
- Ensure vet checkups at least twice a year and as needed
It is not at all uncommon for FIV+ cats to live a happy and long lives in excess of 15 years. Please consider giving an FIV+ cat a chance.
- ‘Five Myths and Facts About FIV’: http://fivcatrescue.org/fiv-myths.html
- ‘CatChat – FIV Information’: http://www.catchat.org/fiv.html
- ‘Feline Retrovirus Infection’: http://www.cliniciansbrief.com/article/feline-retrovirus-infection
- ‘Feline Immunodeficiency Virus’: http://www.vet.cornell.edu/FHC/health_resources/brochure_fiv.cfm
- More information can also be found on the RSPCA site: https://www.rspcansw.org.au/blog/animal-care-information/feline-immunodeficiency-virus-fiv-explainer/